I am so excited about Murder Under the Microscope this term


MuM_poster.jpg
MuM_poster.jpg

Hi Hawaii 5-S

Could everyone please research the following things to help us with our Murder Under the Microscope certificate.

TASK ONE

Research the Double Bay Catchment Area. When you find information put it into the below categories. Make sure you read everyone's information to make sure you don't double up.

A good start could be Googling - Double Bay Catchment Area.

DOUBLE BAY CATCHMENT AREA


Description - what does the environment look like? How big is it? (Veronica and Alex)

Woollahra Municipal Council is responsible for local planning and land management in the Woollahra Local Government Area (LGA) including the management of flood prone areas in the Double Bay catchment. Through its Floodplain Management Committee, Woollahra Municipal Council proposes to prepare a comprehensive Floodplain Risk Management Plan for the catchment in accordance with the NSW Government’s 2005 Floodplain Development Manual. This report is part of the first stage of the management process for the Double Bay catchment and has been prepared for Woollahra Municipal Council by Bewsher Consulting Pty Ltd. It [[#|documents]] the nature and extent of flooding throughout the catchment and will enable Council to proceed to the next steps of undertaking a Floodplain Risk Management Study of the catchment where detailed [[#|assessment]] of the flood mitigation [[#|options]] and floodplain management measures would be undertaken and then developing a Floodplain Risk Management Plan for the catchment.(By Daniel, Son, Brendan and Michael).

(Veronica)
The overall study catchment has an area of approximately 280 hectares which drains to Sydney Harbour ,Woollahra and Bellevue Hill. Of the total area, 30 hectares represents the west Double Bay portion of the catchment which has separate pipelines conveying local runoff to the harbour. Apart from a very small area (of 14 hectares) at Bondi Junctionwhich is within the Waverley Council area, the catchment lies wholly within the Woollahra local government area (LGA).
The upper section of the catchment comprises urban development, commercial and retail premises and limited areas of open space apart from Cooper Park. Stormwater within this section is carried within the underground piped network, or when this is exceeded, along roads or through private property. Most of the drainage infrastructure was built in the 1930s.
The lower section comprises the area where stormwater collects into the open channel downstream of Lough Park and the receiving covered channel which passes under New South Head Road and the Double Bay retail area. The major open and covered channels between Lough Park and the harbour are owned and maintained by the Sydney Water Corporation (SWC) while almost all the catchment stormwater pipes and pits are owned and maintained by Woollahra Council.
The Lough Park playing field area is of importance since it is located in the bottom of the main valley of the catchment and the principal SWC stormwater conduit passes under it. While the grassed embankment at its downslope end would result in floodwaters ponding in the park, there are no records of the embankment having been constructed as part of a purpose-built flood detention basin. We concur with the conclusion reached by Patterson Britton in their 2003 report that there is no formal basin but rather the embankment exists as part of the works associated with the Bondi Ocean Outfall Sewer (BOOS) conduit. At its lowest point in Double Bay, New South Head Road itself is slightly higher than adjoining southern and northern streets.



Reference 3) that there

is no formal basin but rather the embankment exists as part of the works associated
with the Bondi Ocean Outfall Sewer (BOOS) conduit.
At its lowest point in Double Bay, New South Head Road itself is slightly higher than





Climate - Weather (Made, Jack and Emilia)

average rainfall to august 907.0mm 98.8 day(s)
total for 2012 1053.0mm 95 day(s)
total to this day 2011 1003.4mm 108 day(s)
wettest day 109.4mm March 8
lowest temperature5.6°CAug 8
hotest weather this year 33.4°
28/02/2012

Common Native Animals - animals that live in the area that are Australian

Brush tailed and ring tailed possums,Blue tongue lizard and eastersn water dragon,leaf green tree frog,brown striped marsh frog,eastern froglet. (maddie) Australian brush turkey, Australian magpie, Bandicoots, Bower birds, Dingo, Echidnas, Emu, Flying foxes, Frogs, fresh water mussels, Gliding possums, Glossy black-cockatoo, Ibis, Kangaroos & wallabies, Koala, Laughing kookaburra, Little penguin, Lord Howe Island woodhen, Lyrebirds, Malleefowl, Parrots, Platypus, Purple copper butterfly, Shearwaters, Snakes, Terns, Wedge-tailed eagle, Whales, Wombats. (nina)

Endangered Animals - animals (Fynn, Daniel and Anastasia)


ls that are nearly all gone

Common Native Plants - plants that grow in the area that are Australian (Mia, Chloe and Jules)


Native grasses, Thyyme-leaf honey mertle,
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQebgbmpWaZxQQsJ7AGZcEM2Fh3xR8HIpoZfrMDUiv_xPonXQ71uA(Maddie & Mia)

Basket Grass,Kangaroo grass,Native Couch(Jana&Nina)

Endangered Plants - plants that are nearly all gone (Maddie, Michael and Milla)

Sunshine Wattle (maddie)

Pearlwart ,Chesnut leak orchard,fern,Shy susan,Kurragong,Philip island wheat grass,ect {MILLA}

Land Use - what do we use the land for (Heather, Son and James)


The upper section of the catchment comprises residential and commercial development and
limited areas of [[#|open]] space.The lower section of the catchment is dominated by the Double Bay commercial district.Son.


Major Issues - what are big environmental issues affecting the area? (Brendan, Seamus and Henry)

Minor Issues - what are small environmental issues affecting the area? (Georgina, Noah and Jana)One of the minor issues is flooding

Flood risks can be managed by modifying the way a flood behaves (e.g. constructing detention basins, enlarging drainage infrastructure, reducing the potential for culvert blockage), by modifying property on the floodplain (e.g. planning controls, voluntary purchase, voluntary house-raising), or by modifying people’s response to flooding (e.g. warning systems, evacuation planning, education).{Georgina}

Picture

external image Smaller.gif
external image Smaller.gif
Son
alex

TASK TWO

Research your crimesite below. Remember to use the Murder Under the Microscope website and Google as sources for your [[#|information]]. Next to each crime site I have written who is in charge of becoming an expert.

Dampier Creek, Broome, NT (Emilia and Chloe)

Broome has a multicultural population. Koepanger, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, European and Aboriginal cultures predominate. Pearling remains one of the town’s major industries due to the cultured pearl which revived the industry after its near demise in the late 1950s.

The West Australian mining boom of the 1960s as well as the growth of the tourism industry helped Broome develop and diversify.

Major habitats of the area include extensive grassy plains, [[#|open]] tropical woodlands, acacia scrub, saltmarshes, claypans, fresh water lakes and mangroves. (Emilia)


external image placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN

Endeavour River, Cooktown, QLD (Maddie and Jana)

Captain James Cook who in 1770 hauled his damaged boat ‘The Endeavour’ into the river to repair it after it had sprung a leak on the reef named the Endeavour River. He stayed 7 weeks and made the most of his stay. It was here that a lot of Australia's flora and fauna were first recorded. It was also here that the country's national symbol the Kangaroo was discovered. The Endeavour is the only river to be named by Cook.
The beauty of this river is that today as you sit at the wharf looking across to North Shore and up the river you are seeing the same sight that Jimmy Cook would have seen. There are no developments, no resorts, just a whole lot of nature.

The Endeavour River starts at the port of Cook town and meanders north past the communities of Marton, Endeavour Valley and beyond. The Endeavour is diverse. Wide at the mouth, progressing northwards it is lined with over 25 species of mangroves; it then branches and changes dramatically to narrow creeks lined with palms and rainforest flora.

The journey from Cook town wharf up the river into the North Arm is truly an amazing experience

At the mouth it is fairly wide, sandy bottomed and here you'll notice the predominant species of mangrove have stilt-like roots; these are the Tall Stilted Mangrove and Red Mangrove (Aboriginal name Barra Barra) and due to the shape of the roots there are many places where Barra and Jacks can lie ready to ambush.

You'll pass by Leprosy Creek, so called because of a quarantine station that was established at the mouth of the creek. The need for a station was identified when a boat arrived with a contagious disease on board - Leprosy. The boat remained moored at what is now called Quarantine Bay until the station was established.

Some time spent drifting around the flats of Leprosy on a high tide can be very interesting. You may encounter jabirus, pelicans, egrets and herons plus many types of wading birds (curlews, whimbrels, oyster catchers). Stingrays, turtles, shovel nose sharks and groupers are also often seen.



Proceed up the 'Mad Mile', so called because when the tides running out and there's a sou’wester blowing the short-pitched waves can make for a bumpy journey (The 'Gadget' handles it with ease). Pass the deep hole and up into 4 Mile Creek. Remember to also look above you and you may see the resident sea eagle or osprey.

4 Mile Creek takes you up to the remains of the old railway bridge, which had been planned to service the Palmer River in the 1800's. The copper sleeves on the poles still remain intact, a testament that the procedure really worked. Many more species of mangrove can be found here including the cannonball mangrove whose seed pod is nature's very own 'Rubiks Cube'

mum2.jpg
mum2.jpg
North-arm-Endeavour-river.jpg
North-arm-Endeavour-river.jpg


mum.jpg
mum.jpg
er.jpg
er.jpg

(jana)

The Endeavour River ([[/wiki/Guugu_Yimithirr_language|Guugu Yimithirr]]: Wabalumbaal) [[/wiki/Geographic_coordinate_system|Coordinates]]: external image placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN15°27′30″S145°14′00″E / 15.45833°S 145.2333333°E / -15.45833; 145.2333333 on [[/wiki/Cape_York_Peninsula|Cape York Peninsula]] in [[/wiki/Far_North_Queensland|Far North Queensland]], [[/wiki/Australia|Australia]], was named in 1770 by Lt. [[/wiki/James_Cook|James Cook]], R.N., after he was forced to beach his ship, [[/wiki/HM_Bark_Endeavour|HM Bark Endeavour]],[1[[home#cite_note-0|]]] for repairs in the river mouth, after damaging it on [[/wiki/Endeavour_Reef|Endeavour Reef]]. Joseph Banks named it the Endeavours River[2[[home#cite_note-1|]]] but the form Cook used, Endeavour River, has stuck.
Cook and his crew remained for almost seven weeks and made [[#|contact]] with the local [[/wiki/Guugu_Yimithirr_people|Guugu Yimithirr]] [[/wiki/Indigenous_Australians|Aborigines]], while the naturalists [[/wiki/Joseph_Banks|Joseph Banks]] and [[/wiki/Daniel_Solander|Daniel Solander]] made extensive collections of native flora, while [[/wiki/Sydney_Parkinson|Sydney Parkinson]] illustrated much of the flora and fauna of the region. Botanical specimens were also collected by [[/wiki/Alan_Cunningham_(botanist)|Alan Cunningham]] after he arrived on the Mermaid, captained by [[/wiki/Philip_Parker_King|Philip Parker King]] on 28 June 1819.

.
Photo Endeavour River in Cooktown - Pictures and Images of Cooktown
Photo Endeavour River in Cooktown - Pictures and Images of Cooktown

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSuviY3N-jD5vMLwYIWONOeb-WIKSZX4m-jzhqiEaN4FZNjwm5p
(Maddie)


external image placeholder?w=200&h=50


"Natives of Endeavour River in a canoe, fishing." From [[/wiki/Phillip_Parker_King|Phillip Parker King]]'s Survey. 1818.
Modern [[/wiki/Cooktown|Cooktown]] which has a population of about 2,000, is located at the mouth of the Endeavour River. It is the northernmost town on the [[/wiki/East_Coast_of_Australia|East Coast of Australia]] and was founded in 1873, around the site of Cook's landing, as a port to service the newly discovered [[/wiki/Palmer_River|Palmer River]] Goldfields. Some of the relatively undisturbed natural features near the mouth of the river have been reserved as a Queensland National Park, the [[/wiki/Endeavour_River_National_Park|Endeavour River National Park]].
In recent years, [[/wiki/Tilapia|tilapia]] fish, which are considered a "[[/wiki/Noxious|noxious]] species" in Australia, have infested the river, causing concern that the stocks of native fish will suffer.
The river basin remains largely unmodified and the water quality it rated as good
external image placeholder?w=200&h=50
"Natives of Endeavour River in a canoe, fishing." From [[/wiki/Phillip_Parker_King|Phillip Parker King]]'s Survey. 1818.
Modern [[/wiki/Cooktown|Cooktown]] which has a population of about 2,000, is located at the mouth of the Endeavour River. It is the northernmost town on the [[/wiki/East_Coast_of_Australia|East Coast of Australia]] and was founded in 1873, around the site of Cook's landing, as a port to service the newly discovered [[/wiki/Palmer_River|Palmer River]] Goldfields. Some of the relatively undisturbed natural features near the mouth of the river have been reserved as a Queensland National Park, the [[/wiki/Endeavour_River_National_Park|Endeavour River National Park]].
In recent years, [[/wiki/Tilapia|tilapia]] fish, which are considered a "[[/wiki/Noxious|noxious]] species" in Australia, have infested the river, causing concern that the stocks of native fish will suffer.
The river basin remains largely unmodified and the water quality it rated as good
Hawkesbury River, Windsor, NSW (Jules, James and Henry)

The hawkesbury river is one of the river in the costal region New South Wales.

Islands in the hawkesbury river include Milson island, Peat island ,spectacle island ,Dangar island Long island and Tiger island
The Aboriginal name for the river is Deerubbun in 1870.The two main Aboriginal tribes inhabiting the area were the Dhurag people
to the north and west Darkinjung peoples on the opposite side of the river covering the area of Gosford north to lake Mcquarie and west to Wollombi.The Hawkesbury river was one of the major transportation routes from transporting food from the surrounding area to sydney during 1800's.The Hawkesbury classic ,a 111 km canoe race ,is held annually in october or November.{Milla}images-1.jpeg{Milla}

Katherine River, Katherine, NT (Michael and Brendan)


Katherine is a town in Northern Territory, Australia. It is situated on the Katherine River (after which it is named) in the "Top End", 320 kilometres (200 mi) southeast of Darwin. It is the fourth largest settlement in the Territory and the third largest and southernmost major settlement in the Top End. Katherine had an urban population of 5,849 on the 2006 Census night. Katherine is also the closest major town to RAAF Base Tindallocated 17 km southeast and provides education, health, local government services and employment opportunities for the families of Defence personnel stationed there. At the 2006 Census, the base had a residential population of 677, with 24.5% of the workforce engaged in employment outside of defence, the majority commuting to work in Katherine.

Beginning as an outpost established with the Australian Overland Telegraph Line on the North-South transport route between Darwin and Adelaide, Katherine has grown with the development of transport and local industries including mining - particularlygold mining; a strategic military function with RAAF Base Tindal; also as a tourism gateway to the attractions of nearby Nitmiluk National Park, particularly Katherine Gorge and its many ancient rock paintings. The region? By Brendan.T

The Victoria River Region is located south-west of Katherine and is most often visited en-route between Katherine and the Western Australia’s Kimberley region.

The area’s colourful scenery features grassy plains, boab trees and majestic gorges carved by rivers out of sandstone escarpments.

The small township of Timber Creek, 285 kilometres west of Katherine, is the region’s main centre and home to about 70 people. Fishing is Timber Creek's biggest drawcard and the beautiful Victoria River, running through deep valleys and gorges, is one of the Northern Territory’s most scenic places to catch barramundi.

Gregory National Park sits at Timber Creek's doorstep and covers an area of around 13,000 square kilometres. The Park features spectacular escarpment landscapes, prolific wildlife, ancient boab trees and significant remnants of Aboriginal and European history. There is also an extensive network of four-wheel-drive tracks in the Park.

Further west is the Keep River National Park, which is a photographer’s dream. Situated 170 kilometres west of Timber Creek, the Park encompasses towering sandstone landforms that radiate a myriad of colours at sunrise and sunset.

The area is best explored on foot, following well-marked bushwalking trails. There are two camping areas in the Park with barbecues, tables and pit toilets. MICHAEL

external image top-end-hiking-alongside-the-katherine-river.jpg
external image top-end-hiking-alongside-the-katherine-river.jpg

Kiewa River, Mt Beauty, VIC (Daniel, Son and Seamus)

Kiewa river is in Victoria.
Animals
Reptiles inlcude cryptic treefrog , Spencer’s treefrog and Dendy toadlet; Rawlingson’s skink , Maccoy’s elf skink, Spencer’s skink and Heatwole’s five-fingered skink. The alpine tree frog was once widespread but is now endangered. Mammals include common wombat, swamp wallaby, red-necked wallaby, spotted-tail quoll, echidna and platypus. The mountain pygmy possum, bush rat, broad-toothed rat, agile antechinus and dusky antechinus, all live on the highest altitudes of the alpine environment. Birds include the superb lyrebird, gang gang cockatoo, little raven, wedge-tailed eagle, flame robin and Richard’s pipit. Insects include the Bogong moth, thermocolor grasshopper and spotted grasshopper. Land use.
Livestock production of beef and sheep, commercial forestry and tourism are the major land uses. In the past tobacco production was important. The popular ski resort of Falls Creek is located in the Kiewa snow country. Outside of the skiing season, outdoor activities include recreational fishing, horse riding, camping, hiking, picnicking, sightseeing, driving, cycling, rock-climbing, boating, and even swimming. Issues.
In 2003 and 2006 wildfires and post-fire floods caused massive erosion areas. The creation of vast, bare areas and flush of nutrients from the ash beds or deposited sediment promoted rapid growth of many weeds. Himalayan honeysuckle, hawkweed, willow, blackberry, English broom, cape broom and gorse are found.
Feral pets include foxes, wild dogs and dingoes, deer, rabbits, feral horses, cats and goats.
Within the Kiewa River Basin most of the precipitation occurs as rain while in winter snow falls above 1400 metres. Most of the basin receives over 700 mm mean annual rainfall with higher falls to 2 430 mm on the Bogong High Plains. The average winter temperatures range between 9.5°C and 14.4°C. The summer temperatures range between 23.7°C and 33.3°C.Vegetatiion.On the lower slopes of the Alps are grassy woodlands and dry open forests of mountain swamp gum and river red gum, red stringybark, broad-leaved peppermint and white gum. On the montane slopes where precipitation is higher, the dominant trees are a mixture of eucalypts including narrow-leaved peppermint, candlebark, mountain gum and Manna gum with an understorey of ferns and small trees.
  • 85 species of mammals, with 20 extinct and 16 endangered.
  • 53 species of frogs, with none endangered.
  • 46 species of snakes, with 5 endangered.
  • 5 species of tortoises, with none endangered
  • 34 species of fish, with none endangered.
  • Son


a1.png
a1.png
Son




Lake Cowan, Norseman, WA (Anastasia, Zoe and Rahuri)

The area of salt pans around Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie is part of the Salt Lake drainage basin stretching from Lake Dundas, south of Norseman, up to the edge of the Little Sandy Desert. The Nullarbor Plain lies to the east of this basin and the western Australian wheatland to the west. The Salt Lake Basin is designated number 024 by the Australian Water Resource Council in the national scheme of water drainage.
external image 1shim.gif
This area is fairly flat with limited rainfall and does not have permanent watercourses. When rain falls, water flows along short, ephemeral watercourses into depressions left by blowing sand. Water in these depressions forms short-lived lakes which quickly evaporate leaving behind any salt the water picked up in its brief journey across the surrounding land. Over thousands of years this salt has accumulated to form the salt pans so visible today.
external image 1shim.gif
Not all salt lakes formed in depressions left in blowing sand. Many of the larger lakes, such as Lake Cowan near Norseman, are in chains along broad, shallow valleys marking former watercourses. Rivers along these ancient drainage lines ceased flowing as the climate dried many years ago allowing barrages to form in the failing river to retain water while it evaporated leaving a salt residue.(Maddie and Jana)

Lake Cowan is a large lake lying mostly north of Norseman but with a small part extending to the west of the town. The lake is replenished only from rain. Lake Cowan covers an area of about 160,000 hectares. It is fed by Salt Creek.

external image 5080442089_1913c24ac2.jpg (Anastasia)

MacArthur River, Borroloola, NT (Heather, Milla and Veronica)

MacArthur River Mine (MRM) has become one of the world’s largest providers of zinc in bulk concentrate form.
McArthur River Mine produces zinc bulk concentrate for global markets. The operation works in partnership with employees, suppliers, customers, the community of the local Borroloola region, the Northern Territory and Australian Governments.(Anastasia)It also has a diamond mine called The Marlin Diamond Mine it's not as big as the zinc mine but it's the second mine there (they have 2).
The MacAthur River also is very popular in fishing there are many varieties of fish but a large amount of barrummundi and they are the most caught.There is also lots of frog species (tree frog,Giant frog,ect) at least 7-8! The river is located in the north of The Northern Territory near The Gulf Of Carpentaria.It is in Borroloola was is the home of many aboriginal tribes such as the Wilangarray,Yanyuwa,Garrwa,Marra,Gudanji and Binbingka.(veronica)

external image mcarthur_borroloola.jpg(Anastasia)

Embley River, Weipa, QLD (Nina, Mia and Georigina)

Population (2006):
1
2,883

Major Towns:
1
Weipa

Major Rivers:
2
Myall Creek, Embley River, Mission River

Surface Water Storages:
2, 3, 4
Largest known storages: None
No. of storages: 0
Storage capacity (ML): 0
Licensed Irrigation:
Largest areas:
3
None

Number of licenses:
5
n/a

Average annual allocation (ML):
Since 1996-97: n/a
Minimum: n/a
Maximum: n/a
Average annual diversion (ML):
Since 1996-97: n/a
Minimum: n/a
Maximum: n/a
Groundwater:
Number of production bores:
7
178

Recharge rate (mm/year):
8
Data being compiled

Yield (ML/year):
8
Data being compiled

Extraction (ML/year):
7
Data being compiled

Rainfall Reliability:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:StateLibQld_1_15522_Railway_bridge_in_Emerald_during_a_flood,_1918.jpg
Chance of receiving average seasonal rainfall:
8
High (>5 yrs in 10)

Nogoa River, Emerald, QLD (Fynn, Made and Noah)

The Nogoa River rises on the Carnarvon [[#|Range]] in the Carnarvon National Park in Central Queensland and flows in a north easterly direction.The river ends where it meets the CoFrom this point the river is called the Mackenzie Rivermet River north of Comet.Queensland's second largest lake, Lake Maraboon was formed when the Fairbairn Dam was built on the river in 1972. The dam and a network of channels along the Nogoa River supplies water for the Emerald Irrigation Area.The nogoa river has heaps of floods.In January 2008, the Nogoa River reached record flood levels. During the flood, water levels in the Fairbairn Dam rapidly exceeded 100%.[3] Within a week inundations had caused severe disruptions to graziers, crops growers and to residents of Emerald when waters broke its banks. The Nogoa peaked at 15.4 m (51 ft) in Emerald on the night of January 22 2008, causing more than 2500 people to be evacuated.Made.

Pentecost River, Kununurra, WThe river ends where it meets the Comet River north of Comet.A (Jack, Zac and Alex)


Research DDT. (Please remember to be careful about the information you post on the Wiki)

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is an organochlorine insectiside which is a white,crystalline solid, tasteless, and almost odorless. Technical DDT has been formulated in almost every conceivable form including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, granules, aerosols, smoke candles, and charges for vaporisers and lotions.
jana

TASK FOUR

Research acid [[#|rock]] drainage.

The oxidation of sulphidic mine wastes and the consequent release of acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage, is one of the main strategic environmental issues facing the mining industry. The production of broken waste rock and tailings by mining operations can expose large amounts of pyrite and other sulphides to the effects of water and oxygen. Sulphides in the walls of open cuts and underground workings are also exposed by the mining process. Despite general agreement on the significance of acid mine drainage at Australian mine sites in terms of its impact on the environment, its extent has not been quantified, and the additional costs of managing acid mine drainage have not been estimated.
In order to better understand the impact of acid drainage in Australia and to provide a basis for assessing long-term management options and strategic research needs, the Office of the Supervising Scientist (oss) and the Australian Centre for Mine site Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) initiated a study to prepare a status report on acid mine drainage in Australia covering both operational and historic sites. The study was supported by the Minerals Council of Australia.
Information was collected from mine site staff, government department officials and others in Australia who have expertise in the characterization and management of sulphidic mine wastes. Questionnaires were sent to 317 mine sites considered to be sites where the excavated material could be acid generating. The questionnaires sought information about surface water management, ground water, open cuts, underground workings, water qualities, acid base accounting and the types and amounts of potentially acid generating wastes. Information was also collected on historic mine sites where acid drainage was known to be a problem.
Results from the survey suggest that about 54 sites in Australia are managing significant amounts of potentially acid generating wastes, where significant amounts means more than 10% of the wastes is potentially acid generating or there is more than 10 million tonnes (Mt) of potentially acid generating wastes. About 62 additional sites are managing some potentially acid generating wastes but less than 10% of the total wastes and less than 10 Mt.
The most common approach to managing sulphidic wastes is to install a low-permeability cover over the wastes and/or encapsulating the wastes within non-sulphidic materials. In some cases the low permeable covers are constructed by compacting other mine wastes. The average cost of covering potentially acid generating at currently operating mine sites is estimated to be about $40 000 ha-1.
For the Australian industry as a whole, the additional cost of managing potentially acid generating wastes at operating mine sites is estimated to be about $60 million per year. This includes the costs of cover installation, selective placement of wastes, additional waste characterisation and water treatment as appropriate. Over 15 years, the total cost of managing potentially acid generating mine wastes from current mines is $900 million (1997 dollars) for the whole industry.
Costs of managing acid generating wastes are much greater if sulphide oxidation and release of pollutants is discovered after mine closure. The costs of remediating historic mine sites releasing acid mine drainage are $100 000 or more per hectare, and these costs would also apply to mine sites where acid drainage is discovered late in mine life or after mine closure. The costs of treating contaminated water-filled voids or seepages from adits would be additional.
These estimated Australian costs are significantly less that the C$2 to C$5 billion total liability costs for potentially acid generating wastes at mine sites in Canada estimated by the Canadian Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program. The Canadian liability represents the cost of remediating the currently estimated inventory of acid generating wastes in Canada. The amount of potentially acid generating mine wastes in Canada is similar to the amount in Australia, but the estimated costs of remediation for Canadian sites is three to five times greater than for Australian sites.
The management of potentially acid generating wastes is an important environmental issue; major costs may arise late in mine life or after mine closure if proper waste management strategies are not in place from the beginning of mine operations. The risk of these increased costs late in mine life should be of concern to mine owners. Furthermore, the governments will want to ensure that as far as possible the environmental risks and financial liabilities are minimised and are not transferred to government or the community as a result of poor management of the problem during the life of the mine.
The following recommendations cover four main issues: rehabilitation technologies, mine planning, waste characterization and technical awareness of acid drainage issues.
(jana)
TASK FIVE
Research gold and coal mining in Australia and link to possible crime sites.
Mining contributed significantly to preventing potential bankruptcy for the early colonies in Australia. Silver and later copper were discovered in South Australia in the 1840s, leading to the export
of ore and the immigration of skilled miners and smelters. The first economic minerals in Australia were silver and lead in February 1841 at Glen Osmond, now a suburb of Adelaide in South Australia. Mines including Wheal Gawler and Wheal Watkins opened soon after. The value of these mines was soon overshadowed by the discovery of copper at Kapunda (1842), Burra (1845) and in the Copper Triangle (Moonta, Kadina and Wallaroo) area at the top of Yorke Peninsula (1861).
jana
EXTRA FUN FACTS
  • There are 28 mangrove forests near the tropical coasts and only 2 near sydney. (nina).

  • A bushfire in Australia has both negative and positive effects on the ecosystem. The fire destroys some adult trees and burns the branches, trunks and leaves of others. It also burns the undergrowth. The positive effects of this means that more sunlight can then reach the soil and seeds that were waiting for a fire release them can germinate. Young plants can thrive due to an increase in light.


    A fire can change the structure of the soil by making it finer but it also releases stored nutrients in the soil that act as a fertiliser. This provides suitable conditions for seeds to germinate, but also makes it easier for the soil to be washed or blown away.


    A bushfire reduces the number of animals in a region. Animals are either killed or escape to a safer area. They are unable to return until food becomes available again. The food web is significantly damaged and may take years to recover.(JANA)

Victims


Black Headed Python (Michael and Brendan)

Description (What does it look like?)

Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)

Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)

Diet (What does it eat?)

Breeding (How does it reproduce?)

Predators (What attack it?)

Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Boab Tree (Brendan and Michael)

Description (What does it look like?)Fat,large,thick and rough (Michael)



Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)Around the Kimberley region , Northen territory(Michael)



Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)mountains,deserts and grasslands.(Michael)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)People actually didn't know where the boab tree came from but some suggest that the seeds were blown to Australia from Africa or when Africa and Australia where connected together forming a land called Gondwana the seeds just kept on forming until it was planted all the way to Australia.(Michael)


Bridled Nail Tail Wallaby (Fynn, Made and Noah
Bridled nail-tail wallaby is an endangered species of marsupial. It is a small wallaby found in three isolated areas in Queensland, Australia, and whose population is declining. Estimations place the present total population of the species at around 500 individuals.

Description (What does it look like?)

The bridled nailtail wallaby lighter colouring around its neck and down the side of its upper body, that looks like a "bridle". they have a horny spur on the end of their tailsa smaller member of the macropod family, like a small Kangaroo





Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)

Queensland nogoa river


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)



Diet (What does it eat?)



Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Diamond Firetail Finch (Daniel, Son and Seamus)

Description (What does it look like?)


The Diamond Firetail is a finch that has a fiery red bill, eyes, and rump. Just below the throat, it has a thick black band that extends horizontally until it reaches the lower part of the wings which are also black with white spots. There is also a black eye band that starts at the beak and ends right at the eye. The bird's tail is also black. The rest of the wings are a slightly tan, light brown color. Its head and back is light gray and its belly and chin are white.This bird is considered one of the smallest of the finches.Son.

Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)


a5.jpgThe Diamond Firetail Finch is found in south-eastern Australia.Son.


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)

Diamond Firetails are found in open grassy woodland, heath and farmland or grassland with scattered trees.Son.


Diet (What does it eat?)

In the wild, they eat ripe or partially ripe fruits and their seeds. They also eat some insects and their larvae. The birds spend a significant amount of time on the ground finding seeds and insects.Son.


Breeding (How does it reproduce?)

Diamond Firetails have been known to breed from September to the end of April and August to January in the wild.The male gets the female's attention by holding a piece of dead grass in his beak while singing and bobbing up and down. They normally breed in the privacy of the nest or somewhere secluded and close to the ground. After breeding, the female egg can lay about 4 to 6 eggs and incubates them along with the male for 14 days. About 21 days after hatching, they will leave the nest and just about 21 days after that, they are weaned and become independent. Both the male and the female feed the young. Female Diamond Firetails can start breeding after 9 to 12 months of life and are best when paired at a young age.Son.


Predators (What attack it?)

Diamond Firetails have been adversely affected by clearing for agriculture or urban development as well as predation of eggs and nestlings by increased populations of native predators such as the Pied Currawong.Son.


Fun Facts (Interesting facts)

According to the Australian Museum, the Diamond Firetail Finch is a vulnerable species. Diamond Firetail Finhces can grow up to 10 cm to 13 cm.The Diamond Firetail Finch is also known as the Java Sparrow.Son.



Dollarbird (Daniel, Son and Seamus)

Description (What does it look like?)



Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)

a6.pngThe Dollar Bird lives in the north, east and south-east of Australia.Son.


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)



Diet (What does it eat?)



Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Green Tree Frog (Henry, Jules and James)

Description (What does it look like?) It has a wet back and is commonly larger than other frogs.

Black eyes
Its size can reach 10 cm
The frog will squeaks when its being touched.
The large male Green tree frog sometimes has white spots on its back

images.jpg


Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)


Green tree frog in native to northern and eastern regions of Australia distribution is
limited mostly to areas with warm, wet tropical climates.James

litoria_caerulea.gif


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)

The green tree frog lives in hot wet tropical Rainforests,Mangroves
and backyards.James


Diet (What does it eat?)

They eat flies, moths, several types of worms, Grasshoppers,
and crickets.james


Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Green Turtle (Emilia and Chloe)

Description (What does it look like?)

It looks like a normal turtle but bigger and it's shell is bright green with brown stripes. (Chloe)

This is how the green turtle looks like. (Chloe)

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSLpZmEhOw922rCElTaQXiy7xALvYUskCVmqFeD0b89WhsRF5IQWQ


Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)



Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)



Diet (What does it eat?)

A mouth designed for scraping. Green sea turtles are what we call herbivores or plant-eaters. They eat seagrass called turtle grass, the favourite food of green turtles. The upper jaws of the green sea turtle is like a blunt saw.



Breeding (How does it reproduce?)

Green sea turtles nest generally between May and November. They like open, sandy beaches. A female can take as long as 2 hours or more to nest. The female turtle can lay between 75 to 150 eggs. The female turtle will come to shore and nest every 12-15 days during the nesting season. Green turtles do not nest every year but every 2-5 (or more) years.



Predators (What attack it?)

Green sea turtles are an endangered species. This means that their numbers are coming less. The reason this is happening is because people are taking their eggs and kill them for their meat. Some people call green turtles 'soup turtles' because they are killed for turtle soup. Also, these turtles often become trapped in fishing nets and drown.



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Northern Quoll (Maddie and Jana)

Description (What does it look like?)

The Northern Quoll is a medium-sized carnivorous marsupial that lives in the savannas of northern Australia. It is found from southeastern Queensland all the way to the northern Western Australian (WA) coast. Populations have declined across much of this range, particularly as a result of the spread of the cane toad.(Emilia)


Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)




external image displaydistmap.pl?type=species;id=331



Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)



Diet (What does it eat?)



Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Orange Spotted Ladybird (Anastasia, Zoe and Rahuri)

Description (What does it look like?)



Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)



Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)



Diet (What does it eat?)



Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Red Headed Honeyeater (Heather, Milla and Veronica)

Description (What does it look like?) The Red Headed Honey-eater

is a bird, it has a red head and a grey small body usually with a red
stripe on its tail ,It has a long pointy bill and normally grey feet. (Milla)

Red-headed_Honeyeater.jpg


Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?) The Red Headed Honey-eater

is distributed across the Tropical cost lines of Western australia ,Nothern territory
and Queensland.It inhabits costal areas of the Kimberly and various offshore
islands in Western australia.Scientific name Red-headed Myzomela.(Milla)

map.png


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?) The Red Headed Honey-eater

is a passerine bird of the Honey-eater family, found in Australia, Malaysia and
Papa New Guinea .Its Natural habitat is subtropical or tropical Mangrove
forest's. (Milla)


Diet (What does it eat?) The Red Headed Honey-eater is arboreal.

Feeding at Flowers, Insects, Paperbarks, Bottle-brush and many more.
It probes Flowers with it's Long pointy bill.(Milla)


Breeding (How does it reproduce?) The nest is built in the foliage of the

Mangroves. A study of populations in the West Kimberly reported that
the birds hold territories through much of the Dry season and then disperse.(Milla)


Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts) .

.Wingspan of 17-19 cm
.It avrages 12 cm .Males are usually slightly larger and more brightly coloured than females (Milla)


Sturt Desert Pea (Alex, Jack and Zac)

Description (What does it look like?)The sturs desert pea

has red petals and a black spot on each petal.The scientific name is

Swainsona formosa.The flowers are about 9cm in length, The plant flowers from

spring to summer ,particularly after rain. (Milla)


images.jpeg

Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)The Sturts Dessert pea

is found in the arid woodlands and bushland ,open plains and dessert
areas of central australia.Spreading in its distribution through all
mainland states except Victoria ,It is not found in tasmania.


sa.dist.gif


Fun Facts (Interesting facts)

Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)

.william dampier first sighted the dessert pea on the 22 of august 1699
.Named after king charles sturt
.The sturts dessert pea was depicted on the 20c stamp


Sugar Glider
(Jana and Maddie)

Description (What does it look like?)



Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)



Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)



Diet (What does it eat?)



Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Ulysses Butterfly (Mia, Georgina and Nina)

Description (What does it look like?) A

Ulysses Butterfly looks like abnormal butterfly but with blue on the inside and black on the outside it is a
beautiful butterfly.{georgina}
.imgres.jpeg{Milla}



Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)

butterfly.jpg this is the map (Georgina)


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)


According to Australia’s Wet Tropics Management Authority, the Ulysses Butterfly is commonly found around tropical areas of Australia where it can be seen flitting around flowers in an attempt to hide from predators, such as birds.(Georgina)





Diet (What does it eat?)


the Ulysses survives on a liquid diet of mostly nectar, which it sucks into its body through a long, straw-like apparatus known as a proboscis. Like all butterflies, the Ulysses may also dine on rotting fruit, sap, pollen, and even the moisture from animal dung.(Georgina)






Breeding (How does it reproduce?)


Most breed in the spring and summer. In warm climates, Some species won't breed in the hottest time of the year.(Georgina)



Predators (What attack it?

Birds(Georgina)


Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Bilby (Emilia and Chloe)

Description (What does it look like?)

A bilby is a small, large-eared marsupial, about the size of a rabbit, with grey fur. It's large ears are hairless, and it has strong front paws with sharp claws for digging.(Chloe)



Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)

Bilibies live in spiralling burrows which they dig up to 2m deep. A bilby may have up to a dozen burrows. (Chloe)

Here is a picture of 2 bilbies. (Chloe)

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSUKWh3iTlUmF6RviJ3TuCM9RkIVb6Jt5HPmchgP57nR1be67qHeA


Diet (What does it eat?)

Bilbies are omnivorous. They eat things lik seeds, spiders, insects and larvae, fruit, fungi, small animals and much more. (Chloe)




Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)


Echidna (Zoe, Anastasia and Rahuri)

Description (What does it look like?)

the echidna is a cute spikey little critter,with brown,yellow and light brown spikes.(anastasia)




Distribution (Where in Australia does it live?)


external image MainFrame_clip_image006_0000.png
(anastasia)


Habitat (What ecosystem does it live in?)



Diet (What does it eat?)



Breeding (How does it reproduce?)



Predators (What attack it?)



Fun Facts (Interesting facts)



YAY WE GOT IT RIGHT!!!